Exodus Chapter 12

Sep 18, 2012  |  Exodus, Old Testament  |  No Comments

The Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread

Exodus 12:1 And the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

Exodus 12:2 “This month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you.

Exodus 12:3-5 Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying ‘In the tenth day of this month, they are to take a lamb for each family, a lamb for a household. And if the household is too small for the lamb, have him and his neighbor next to his house take it according to the number of people, according to what each can eat shall make the count for the lamb.

Exodus 12:6-11 And you shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening. And they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and on the upper door posts of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. And they shall eat the flesh on that night, roasted in fire, with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs shall they eat it. Do not any of it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted in fire, its head with its legs and its entrails. And you shall leave nothing of it to remain until morning, and what remains of it until morning you shall burn with fire. And thus shall you eat it: with your loins girded, with shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand, and you shall eat it in haste.  It is the LORD’s Passover.

Exodus 12:12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt tonight, and will strike every firstborn of the land of Egypt, both man and beast. And against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. I am the LORD.

Exodus 12:13 And the blood shall be a sign for you of the houses where you are. When I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you, when I strike the land of Egypt.

Exodus 12:14-15 And this day shall be to you a memorial, and you shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations, and you shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever. For seven days, you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day, you shall removed yeast from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread, from the first day to the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel.’”

Exodus 12:16 On the first day there shall be a holy convocation and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation to you. No manner of work shall be done on them, but that which everyone must eat, that alone may be prepared by you.

Exodus 12:17 And you shall observe the feast of unleavened bread, for on this same day, I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore, you shall observe this day throughout your generations as an everlasting ordinance.

Exodus 12:18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the month at evening.

Exodus 12:19 For seven days, no leaven shall be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is leavened, that person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or born in the land.

Exodus 12:20 You shall eat nothing leavened, in all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened bread.’”

Moses assembled the Israelites and directed them to choose a lamb and slaughter it, putting the blood on the doors of their homes. He told them,

Exodus 12:23 For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians, and when He sees the blood on the lintel and the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to strike you.

Exodus 12:25 And it shall come to pass, when you come to the land that the LORD will give you, as He has promised, that you shall keep this service.

Exodus 12:26-27 And it shall come to pass, when your children say to you, “What do you mean by this service?” that you shall say, “It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s Passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when He struck the Egyptians, and delivered our houses.” And the people bowed their heads and worshiped.

Exodus 12:28 And the children of Israel went away and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron.

Exodus 12:29 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of the Pharaoh that sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of livestock.

After Pharaoh and all the Egyptian people discovered their great loss:

Exodus 12:31 Then he called Moses and Aaron by night and said, “Rise, go out from among my people, both you and children of Israel. Go, serve the LORD as you have said. Also, take your flocks and herds as you have said, and be gone. And bless me also.”

The Egyptian people were anxious to push the children out of Egypt for fear of death, and the children of Israel hastily gathered their belongings, including the cloth, silver, gold and jewels they had asked for from their Egyptian neighbors.

Exodus 12:36 And the LORD gave the people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians, so they let them have what they requested. And so they plundered the Egyptians.

And the children of Israel left Egypt and journeyed from Ramses to Succoth.  They baked their unleavened bread on the way. The multitude of over 600,000men plus women and children were accompanied by a mixed multitude of other people.

Exodus 12:41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, that very day, that all the regiments of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.

Exodus 12:42 It was a night of watching by the LORD, to bring them out of the land of Egypt. This is that night of the LORD to be observed by all the children of Israel throughout their generations.

Exodus 12:43-49 And the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner shall eat it. But every man’s servant that is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then he may eat it. A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat it. It is to be eaten in one house. You shall not carry any of the flesh outside the house, nor shall you break any of the bones. All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. And when a stranger dwells with you and wants to keep the Passover to the LORD, all his males shall be circumcised, then let him come near and keep it. And he shall be as one who is born in the land, for no uncircumcised person shall eat of it. One law shall be for the native-born and the stranger who dwells with you.”

Exodus 12:50 So all the children of Israel did exactly as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron.

Exodus 12:51 And it came to pass, on that very same day, that the LORD brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.

Reflections on God in Exodus Chapter 12

  • God established the Feast of the Passover before He delivered the children of Israel from Egypt.
  • God established that the Feast of the Passover was to be for the children of God only.  If someone wanted to keep the Passover, they first had to become part of the community by being circumcised.
  • God plundered Egypt, both as a blessing to Israel and as punishment to the Egyptians. Given that the wealth of the Egyptians was largely due to Joseph, this was only right.
  • God demonstrated His power, His sovereignty, and His wrath in the final plague on the Egyptians.
  • God showed that He was patient, but He will not forestall His actions forever.
  • God commanded that all leavening was to be removed from the home before Passover and no leavened bread was to be eaten during the Passover.  Anyone who did so, would be cut off.   Is there a deeper meaning regarding the ban on leavening? Is it related to what Jesus mentions regarding the yeast of the Pharisees?

 Expectations for Us from Exodus Chapter 12

  • Fear God.  He is the Almighty, and He is not to be taken lightly.
  • Obey God.  If the Israelites had not obeyed God on the night of the Passover, their firstborn sons and animals would have suffered the same fate as the Egyptians. Also, if they did not obey God, they would not have been ready to depart Egypt when Pharaoh finally relented.
  • Remember the Feast of the Passover.
  • Be ready to change direction and follow God whenever He calls.




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